Please read and accept the terms and conditions and check the box to generate a sharing link. While this strategy does not necessarily mean they are settling for lower quality partners as perhaps, many of the speed-dating participants would be high-quality partnersit does reflect a less selective approach to finding a match compared to those who do not fear being single.
As an individual difference measure, FOBS aligns with several other constructs commonly used in research on relationships. While there are likely multiple mechanisms contributing to less selective dating strategies among those who fear being single involving both intra- and interpersonal factors, the present research explores the role of physical attractiveness as one possible contributor.
For instance, meta-analyses suggest that physical attractiveness is largely independent of personality Feingold, Taken together, there may not be reason to expect that FOBS is associated with lower attractiveness to the extent that it is considered a trait-like individual difference. The present research explores whether perceptions of physical attractiveness—either as perceived by others or the self—are associated with FOBS and predict settling for less among those who fear being single.
Because it remains unknown exactly what working models of self and other those who fear being single tend to hold, greater distinction among FOBS, anxious attachment, and avoidant attachment is warranted.
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These covariates were selected based on prior research on FOBS and attractiveness ratings, respectively. Lean Library can solve it. We determined sample size based on convenience during predetermined data collection periods in public spaces on campus. Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. On the other hand, if FOBS develops from perceptions that partners are generally unwilling to commit, are unreliable, or unfaithful, and successful relationships are therefore difficult to attain, FOBS may be characterized by negative working models of other.
The matching hypothesis suggests that daters tend to select partners who are similar to them in attractiveness Walster et al. Importantly, in Study 2, we also collected data on how selective participants were in their partner choices and how desirable they were to fellow daters while speed dating in order to test whether self- or judge-rated attractiveness served to explain findings that FOBS predicts being less selective—but not necessarily less desirable—in partner selection contexts Spielmann, MacDonald, et al.
Indeed, there are not generally strong associations between physical attractiveness and personality dynamics or relational insecurities. Our goal was to test the unique association between FOBS and physical attractiveness when ing for several important covariates. of hierarchical linear regression models in Studies 1 and 2, respectively, predicting judge-rated and self-rated physical attractiveness. Furthermore, research has consistently demonstrated unique predictive effects of FOBS on relationship behavior above and beyond the effects of anxious attachment Spielmann, MacDonald, et al.
The predictive effects of fear of being single on physical attractiveness and less selective partner selection strategies
The matching hypothesis might suggest that lower attractiveness ought not to be associated with FOBS, because less attractive daters should still garner the romantic interest of their fellow less attractive daters. In Studies 1 and 2, FOBS was not ificantly associated with judge-rated physical attractiveness as a bivariate association or in hierarchical regressions ing for anxious and avoidant attachments, gender, and smiling. Moreover, among those who feared being single, romantic interest was relatively equally directed toward the responsive versus unresponsive targets and attractive versus unattractive targets, suggesting a lack of selectivity.
Indeed, FOBS and anxious attachment typically tend to be strongly, positively correlated e. Bayes factors between 3 and 10 reflect moderate support for the null hypothesis note this is not the default direction in some other softwareand Bayes factors between 10 and 30 reflect strong support for the null Jeffreys, In both Studies 1 and 2, we next conducted two separate hierarchical regression models: one with judge-rated attractiveness and one with self-rated attractiveness as the dependent variable see Table 3.
The e-mail addresses that you supply to use this service will not be used for any other purpose without your consent. Mean, SDrange, and reliability statistics for Studies 1 and 2 are presented in Table 1. In Study 2, speed daters completed the FOBS Scale and reported their self-perceived attractiveness, then their physical attractiveness was rated by coders.
Furthermore, they seem to acknowledge that their less selective strategies are potentially matching them with targets who are less responsive, less attractive, and less likely to foster lasting relationships. Physical attractiveness, particularly as judged by others, is important for attracting mates.
Raters were not given instructions on what to classify as a smile but simply indicated whether they perceived the target to be smiling. Unfortunately, the broader antecedents, or factors contributing to FOBS, generally remain unknown.
Step 2 of the hierarchical regression models included the two-way interaction between FOBS and gender, in order to explore whether possible gendered effects of attractiveness ratings moderate the effects of FOBS. Those with stronger FOBS also tend to adopt a less selective matching strategy when speed dating by expressing interest in a larger of people Spielmann, MacDonald, et al. Self-reported ethnicity was not assessed in either study.
Fifty-five participants were single, 20 were casually dating, and 44 were in a serious relationship, engaged, or married three did not report their relationship status. The of raters was determined based on available research assistants. In both Studies 1 and 2, we first conducted bivariate correlations among all variables for descriptive purposes and to test the simple association between FOBS and self- and judge-rated attractiveness see Table 2.
Additionally, consuming more romantic media e. Fear of being single FOBS tends to predict settling for less when seeking a romantic partner. However, because we also speculate that FOBS could share some theoretical similarity with avoidant attachment in terms of negative working models of others, we also controlled for avoidant attachment in all analyses.
Although anxious attachment and FOBS may align in terms of negative working models of self, it is less clear how FOBS maps onto working models of other. However, perhaps, the most important theoretical and empirical distinction is between FOBS and attachment style. Accessing resources off campus can be a challenge. For instance, Spielmann, MacDonald, et al.
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Therefore, while the matching hypothesis may indeed predict successfully finding a partner among less attractive daters, less attractive daters may still regularly experience greater romantic rejection or unrequited interest than their more attractive counterparts. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice.
This product could help you. In this sense, people high in FOBS and anxious attachment likely share similarities in their working models of self, such that they generally possess negative self-views. Therefore, we ran an exploratory test of relationship status as a moderator of the association between FOBS and judge-rated attractiveness. Finally, we statistically controlled for smiling in the photograph, because smiling is known to impact perceptions of physical attractiveness Reis et al. If, for instance, FOBS arises from chronic desires for a partner to provide safety and security akin to anxious attachmentthen those who fear being single may hold positive working models of other, such that they hold romantic partners in high regard and their fears represent worries of not attaining this ideal.
To date, the mechanisms explaining why those with stronger FOBS are less selective remain unknown. The association between FOBS and physical attractiveness has not ly been explored, and there may be compelling reasons to expect that they would or would not be associated. Another example of less selective dating strategies was documented among speed daters Study 7. Did you struggle to get access to this article?
However, FOBS and anxious attachment load onto separate factors and do not have substantial cross-loading of items across factors Spielmann, MacDonald, et al. However, the tendency of those with stronger FOBS to be less selective during speed dating was not explained by either their judge-rated or their self-rated physical attractiveness.
Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. One possible outcome of our exploratory analysis is that stronger FOBS will be associated with lower physical attractiveness. In the present research, we conducted an exploratory test of the association between FOBS and physical attractiveness and tested whether physical attractiveness helps to explain less selective dating strategies of those who fear being single.
The present research involved two studies. For instance, in simulated online dating paradigms Studies 5 and 6 in which Robins viewed dating profiles varying in responsiveness and physical attractiveness, those with stronger FOBS expressed greater romantic interest than their less fearful counterparts in the unresponsive and unattractive profiles.
Importantly, those with stronger FOBS recognized that the profiles varied in responsiveness and attractiveness and that they would be less likely to have a lasting relationship with the unresponsive vs. Judge-rated physical attractiveness ratings were obtained dating aggregating independent ratings from 10 research assistants 5 male and 5 female who were blind to survey responses.
Because we see a similar pattern of settling for less among those with stronger FOBS, perhaps their willingness to settle for less is in part explained by physical attractiveness. Therefore, despite their strong correlation, FOBS and anxious attachment appear to be distinct relational constructs that tap into unique insecurities. Despite recognizing that certain targets were less desirable, those who feared being single wanted to date them anyway. Table 3. Several studies in Spielmann, MacDonald, et al.
Indeed, Kavanagh et al. That is, perhaps the antecedents of FOBS are independent of attractiveness levels, or the contributions of attractiveness to FOBS are so small as to be irrelevant. The research assistant took a photograph including shoulders and above of each participant. For both men and women, stronger FOBS predicts greater romantic interest in dating prospects who are less responsive and physically attractive, speed, once in a relationship, a lower likelihood of initiating breakups with dissatisfying partners Spielmann, MacDonald, et al.
On the other hand, our exploratory test of the association between FOBS and physical attractiveness may reveal that there is no meaningful association between the two. By objective metrics, those who fear being single seem to have relative success at attracting partners.
For instance, during speed dating, daters with stronger FOBS were selected for matches by fellow speed daters just as frequently as their less fearful counterparts Spielmann, MacDonald, et al. This imputation method for missing data provides unbiased parameter estimates and improves statistical power of analyses Enders, However, remained the same even if missing data were not imputed. Interestingly, some research suggests that those who fear being single may not need to adopt less selective strategies to find a partner.
Zero-order correlations in Table 2 revealed a ificant association between being in a relationship and having higher judge- and self-rated physical attractiveness, ificantly lower anxious and avoidant attachments, and a trend toward lower FOBS. There were mixed findings in both studies regarding the association between FOBS and self-rated physical attractiveness in bivariate versus multivariate analyses. Table 2. Bivariate correlations between variables in Studies 1 and 2, respectively. Concerns about being without a romantic partner may manifest as a trait-like individual difference known as FOBS.
Correlations among variables in Studies 1 and 2, respectively, are presented in Table 2.
We excluded data from one participant for only partially completing the survey and from one outlier greater than 3 SD below the mean on self-rated attractiveness. Therefore, we also explored in the present research whether FOBS was associated with lower self-rated attractiveness and whether lower self-rated attractiveness predicted settling for less during partner selection. For instance, a variance components analysis on daily fluctuations in FOBS over a day experience sampling study suggested that For instance, FOBS increases immediately following a breakup, regardless of who initiated the breakup decision Spielmann et al.
The present research sought to examine whether this is due, at least in part, to lower physical attractiveness among those who fear being single. Additionally, in order to serve as proper covariates for effects of FOBS, the interactions between anxious attachment and gender and between avoidant attachment and gender were included in Step 2 as recommended by Yzerbyt, Muller, and Judd Therefore, these exploratory analyses should be interpreted with caution as they are relatively underpowered.
Research assistants approached students on campus to complete a survey and be photographed. We conducted a hierarchical regression model with FOBS, anxious attachment, avoidant attachment, relationship status, gender, and smiling at Step 1 and two-way interactions between FOBS and relationship status, anxious attachment and relationship status, and avoidant attachment and relationship status in Step 2.
However, different antecedents could conceivably contribute to more positive or negative working models of other. Prior research supporting its trait-like properties has demonstrated that FOBS varies much more between than within people. Compared to less fearful participants, those with stronger FOBS expressed a desire to match with a greater of dates.